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Recently, it was reported that nanostructured materials processed under high pressure by HPT and ECAP have an extraordinary combination of both high strength and high ductility, which are two desirable, but rarely co-existing properties. These findings indicate that high-pressure is a critical factor that can be employed to process nanostructured materials with superior mechanical, and possibly also physical, properties. It is the objective of this workshop to review our current knowledge, identify issues for future research, and discuss future directions on the processing and properties of nanostructured materials via SPD techniques, with a special emphasis on high-pressure effects. The 42 peer-reviewed papers in this book cover areas of high pressure effect on the nanostructure and properties of SPD-processed materials, fundamentals of nanostructured materials, development of high-pressure SPD technologies for commercializations, recent advances of SPD technologies as well as applications and future markets of SPD-processed nanostructured materials.