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Keilschrifttexte aus ISIN - ISAN Bahriyat : ergebnisse der ausgrabungen der Deutschen forchungsgemeinschaft unter der schirmherrschaft der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
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ISSN: 0005710X ISBN: 9783769601299 3769601297 Year: 2018 Volume: 143 Publisher: Munchen Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften

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The French cinema book
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ISBN: 9781844574650 1844574652 9781844574667 1844574660 Year: 2018 Publisher: London BFI Palgrave, A BFI book published by Palgrave

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This thoroughly revised and expanded edition of a key textbook offers an innovative and accessible account of the richness and diversity of French film history and culture from the 1890s to the present day. The contributors, who include leading historians and film scholars, provide an indispensable introduction to key topics and debates in French film history. Each chronological section addresses seven key themes – people, business, technology, forms, representations, spectators and debates, providing an essential overview of the cinema industry, the people who worked in it, including technicians and actors as well as directors, and the culture of cinema going in France from the beginnings of cinema to the contemporary period


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Life History Evolution : A Biological Meta-Theory for the Social Sciences
Authors: --- --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319901251 Year: 2018 Publisher: Cham Springer International Publishing :Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan


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Inkomstenbelasting
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ISBN: 9789013148619 Year: 2018 Publisher: Alphen aan den Rijn Kluwer

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Life History Evolution : A Biological Meta-Theory for the Social Sciences
Authors: --- --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 3319901249 3319901257 Year: 2018 Publisher: Cham : Springer International Publishing : Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan,

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The social sciences share a mission to shed light on human nature and society. However, there is no widely accepted meta-theory; no foundation from which variables can be linked, causally sequenced, or ultimately explained. This book advances “life history evolution” as the missing meta-theory for the social sciences. Originally a biological theory for the variation between species, research on life history evolution now encompasses psychological and sociological variation within the human species that has long been the stock and trade of social scientific study. The eighteen chapters of this book review six disciplines, eighteen authors, and eighty-two volumes published between 1734 and 2015—re-reading the texts in the light of life history evolution. .


Dissertation
Reductive catalytic fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass: Evaluation of non-noble metal catalysts

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Environmental problems and the dependency on fossil resources urge the search for sustainable feedstocks for fuels and chemicals. Second generation biorefineries convert lignocellulose to platform chemicals, but currently fail to efficiently valorise lignin. As lignin is an abundant and renewable source of bio-based aromatics, the downstream processing of lignin is important to create a sustainable and economically viable biorefinery. This master’s thesis handles the reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) of biomass, in which the processing of lignin occurs prior to the valorisation of the carbohydrate pulp. During the process lignin is extracted and depolymerised in the presence of a solvent and a hydrogenation catalyst, under pressurised hydrogen and at elevated temperatures. The aim is to yield a depolymerised lignin-oil, rich in monomeric compounds while maintaining a solid carbohydrate pulp. However, current processes use expensive noble metals, such as Pd and Ru, which increases the operational cost. The implementation of non-noble metal catalysts has been investigated in order to find cost-competitive alternatives for the selective noble metal catalysts. Initially, a variety of commercially available Ni- and Co-based powder catalysts were screened in standard reaction conditions (30 bar H2 and 250 ̊C), which pointed out that the Ni-based catalysts show an overall higher performance than the Co-catalysts. Two Ni-catalysts, the Ni 5249P and Ni 6458, achieved monomer yields close to the theoretical maximum but showed a lower selectivity than the noble metals. Experiments with Ni-catalyst pellets in a basket were also performed to test the catalytic stability. A reactor basket was used for an easy recuperation of the catalyst afterwards. The results demonstrated that even in the presence of acid and water Ni-leaching was limited (<1% leaching). Moreover, the addition of water significantly decreased monomer yields. The conversion of lignocellulosic wastes to platform chemicals is very appealing due to the recycling of waste streams and the low cost of the raw material. Therefore, the implementation of waste wood fines (WWF) in the RCF was tested. Moreover, catalyst recycling experiments with WWF resulted in a gradual decrease of the monomer yield over the different runs from 6.1 C% to 1.6 C% for the raw WWF and from 4.2 C% to 2.3 C% for the extracted WWF. Finally, to modify the catalytic selectivity, the Ni catalysts were doped with an inexpensive promotor metal (Fe, Mo and W). Despite a lower the monomer yield, the selectivity of the catalyst was clearly affected by the dopants.

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Dissertation
The potential of steam distillation for the purification of valuable phenolic monomers in lignin-oil

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As a vast and renewable source of aromatics, lignin in lignocellulosic biomass holds a tremendous potential as a sustainable feedstock. The Centre for Surface Chemistry and Catalysis (COK) of the University of Leuven developed a lignin-first approach, in which the lignin is valorised through a reductive catalytic fractionation as a lignin-oil rich in phenolic monomers. The purification of these valuable monomers previously made use of an energy-intensive hexane extraction. This master thesis looks to improve the previous set-up. Both the technical and economic feasibility of a lignin-first biorefinery with a steam distillation set-up are studied, for the purification of phenolic monomers (mostly 4-n-propylsyringol (PS) and 4-n-propylguaiacol (PG)) in a hardwood and softwood lignin-oil. First, a proof of concept was delivered in two ways. An assessment of the relative volatility of PG and PS made clear that distillation was a feasible separation method. Additionally, a batch steam distillation experiment was undertaken. The experiment confirmed that steam distillation is capable of retrieving the monomers, while retaining the di- and oligomers in the lignin-oil. Furthermore, the onset of a phase separation between the water and monomeric phase could be observed in the product samples. Once the feasibility of steam distillation was established, an attempt was made to scale up these results to an industrial-size process unit. Three distinct units (two for hardwood, one for softwood) were modelled with Aspen Plus®, which could treat 16 kmol/hr of lignin-oil with 300 kmol/hr of steam. Each set-up contained a steam distillation (to isolate the monomers) and regular distillation (to purify the monomers) column. After a preliminary design, the set-ups were optimised with various sensitivity analyses. The columns in the set-ups contained between 25 and 35 stages and operated under distillate-to-feed ratios of 0.60 to 0.98 and reflux ratios of 0.7 to 5.0. The resulting set-ups respectively managed to recover PS (hardwood) or PG (softwood) with efficiencies of 99.73%, 98.09% and 96.93%. Purities of 99.85 wt%, 98.87% and 98.73 wt% were reached. Furthermore, approximately 3.85 times as much PS-product was produced as in the previous set-up, since the lignin-oil contained significantly more monomers due to the omission of the hexane extraction. Finally, the economic feasibility of the set-up was assessed. The three set-ups represented similar capital expenditures (CAPEX) between $14.66M and $14.71M, since they were of similar size and used the same types of equipment. The operational expenditures (OPEX) were high due to the large energy duties (between 24.51 and 26.69 MWh). Therefore, the OPEX per unit of feedstock were significantly higher than in the previous set-up, but due to the increased output the OPEX per unit of product were similar or even cheaper. This master thesis succeeded in its goal to investigate the feasibility of a steam distillation set-up for the purification of lignin-oil.

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Dissertation
Selective synthesis, oestrogenic activity, copolymerisation, and catalytic isomerisation of bisguaiacol F (BGF) regioisomers

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The non-renewable and endocrine disrupting nature of conventional petro-based bisphenols, like bisphenol A (BPA) and F (BPF), has sparked the quest for bio-based and oestrogen inactive bisphenol replacements, used for the production of aromatic polycarbonate (PC) and epoxy resins. A promising BPA/bisphenol replacement, is para,para’-bisguaiacol F (p,p’-BGF), a condensation product of lignin-derivable vanillyl alcohol (VA) and guaiacol. In this master thesis, the potential of p,p’-BGF as a green and safe(r) building block for PCs is examined. Special attention is given to the integrated and simultaneous valorisation of meta,para’-bisguaiacol F (m,p’-BGF), a significant side product inherently linked to p,p’-BGF synthesis. In a new and successful approach, both BGF regioisomers are selectively synthesised by acid-catalysed condensation of guaiacol with commercially available VA regioisomers. For p,p’-BGF (from VA), optimisation leads to a chemo- and regioselectivity of 56 wt% and 73%, respectively. Similar values (58 wt% and 72%) are obtained for m,p’-BGF (from isovanillyl alcohol). Preliminary results indicate the existence of acid-catalysed isomerisation for p,p’-BGF (to o,p’-BGF), but it seems to lacks for m,p’- and o,p’-isomers. Subsequent purification by column chromatography and successive (re)crystallisation yields isomerically pure (p,p’- and m,p’-)BGF (>99.5%). Before polymerisation, to ensure safer chemical design, their estrogenic activity (EA) is tested in an in vitro luciferase assay, and found to be significantly lower compared to BPA and BPF. p,p’- and m,p’-BGF display reduced potencies (84 and 89 times lower affinity than BPA) and lowered efficacies (52% and 38% of BPA’s maximum effect), respectively. One-on-one comparison of p,p’-BPF and p,p’-BGF demonstrates the direct link between lower EA and the presence of ortho-methoxy groups. Next, homo- and copolymers (25:75, 50:50 and 75:25) of p,p’- and m,p’-BGF are successfully prepared by interfacial polymerisation (in >80% yield) with in situ generated phosgene (from triphosgene), as unambiguously proven by (1H and 13C) NMR, FTIR and GPC. All BGF-based PCs (BGF-PCs) display nearly identical thermal and physicochemical properties, having Mw = 20.0-26.2 kDa, Mn = 5.5-6.2 kDa, Tg = 102-111 °C and Td;max = 417-419 °C, of which the latter two properties are almost similar to petro-based BPF-PC (Tg = 119 °C, Td;max= 447 °C), regardless of their different Mw.

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State aid to banks
Authors: --- --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789013146684 9013146686 Year: 2018 Publisher: Alphen aan den Rijn Kluwer

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Social enterprises in the EU
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ISBN: 9789013148718 9013148719 Year: 2018 Publisher: Alphen aan den Rijn Kluwer

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