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Sustainable materialisation of residues from thermal processes into construction materials : construction materials from stainless steel slags
Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789460188602 Year: 2014 Publisher: Leuven Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

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The amount of slag generated is almost athird of the total stainless steel produced. Owing to its mineralogy, a large partof the slag is produced as fines, which has a very low valorisation potentialand has to be landfilled. The present work is aimed at exploring the potentialof these slags to produce construction materials of higher economic value.To address the issue, two valorisationroutes were applied: 1) alkali-activation initiating binding reactions in theslag by the addition of alkali hydroxides and silicates, 2) carbonation initiating hardening reaction in the slag by the formation of alkalicarbonates. Two stainless steel slags, continuous casting (CtCs) slag and Argonoxygen decarburisation (AOD) slag, were targeted for valorisation.Initiation of hardening reactions in theslag was found to occur only under a combined treatment of alkali (Na and K)hydroxides and high temperature (80 &#176;C) which was provided by steam curing. However,only a moderate strength in the mortar specimens was observed under suchconditions along with appearance of efflorescence with NaOH for molaritiesabove 5 M. The problem of low strength and efflorescence in the mortar sampleswas eliminated by the introduction of silicates in the system along with thealkali hydroxides. The compressive strength of the slag mortars was found toincrease with the increase in the amount of silicates in the activatingsolution and with the increase of the curing temperature. The reaction productfrom the activation was found to be C-S-H as confirmed by thermogravimetric,QXRD, FTIR and 29Si NMR analysis.The slag was also found to develop strengthunder acceleration carbonation conditions which was provided under two environments:i) in a carbonation chamber, maintained at atmospheric pressure, 22 &#176;C, 5 vol.%CO2 and 80% RH; and ii) in a carbonation reactor, where the CO2partial pressure (pCO2)and temperature could be further increased. It was found that in thecarbonation chamber the compressive strength of the samples and the CO2sequestration continued to increase up to 3 weeks whereas in the reactor theoptimum for strength and CO2 sequestration was found at 80 &#176;C, 8 barpressure in 2.5 h. The major reaction product was found to be calcite indifferent morphologies.Three types of masonry blocks were preparedform the slag with the two valorisation routes: alkali-activated solid bricks,perforated carbonated bricks and alkali-activated aerated bricks. Thecarbonated bricks were found to have the best resistance to freeze-thaw,whereas the aerated bricks were found to have superior thermal resistivity values.The LCA showed that the environmental impact of the bricks is lower (negativefor carbonated bricks) than the conventional clay fired bricks and the impactof the aerated bricks was found to be similar to the conventional aeratedblocks available in the market. A SWOTanalysis highlighted the advantage of using these bricks in the form of lowerenergy requirement in its production, reduction of stress on the use of prime materialsand ease of metal recovery from the residual slag.The results of the dissertation show that thebinding potential of the stainless steel slags can be exploited as valorisedapplications in the construction industry by novel thermo-alkali activation andcarbonation processes.


Book
Targeted research action Environmentally friendly construction technologies : state-of-the-art and market review 1997/1998.
Author:
Year: 1998 Publisher: Brussels European council for construction research, development and innovation,


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Bepalingsmethode materiaalgebonden milieuprestatie van gebouwen en GWW-werken : klare taal in de bouw.
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ISBN: 9789053675144 Year: 2010 Publisher: Rotterdam SBR (Stichting Bouwresearch),


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Environmental profile of building elements : towards an integrated environmental assessment of the use of materials in buildings
Authors: --- --- --- --- --- et al.
Year: 2013 Publisher: Mechelen OVAM.


Book
Milieuprofiel van gebouwelementen : op weg naar een geïntegreerde milieubeoordeling van materiaalgebruik in gebouwen
Authors: --- --- --- --- --- et al.
Year: 2013 Publisher: Mechelen OVAM,


Book
Milieuprofiel van gebouwelementen : details per variant
Authors: --- --- --- --- --- et al.
Year: 2013 Publisher: Mechelen OVAM,

Contemporary Slovenian timber architecture for sustainability.
Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783319036342 Year: 2014 Publisher: Cham Springer,

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The book presents Slovenia’s contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs, and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office, as well as tourist, educational, and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.

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