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Sustainable Materialisation of Residues from Thermal Processes into Construction Materials : Construction materials from stainless steel slags

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Abstract

The amount of slag generated is almost athird of the total stainless steel produced. Owing to its mineralogy, a large partof the slag is produced as fines, which has a very low valorisation potentialand has to be landfilled. The present work is aimed at exploring the potentialof these slags to produce construction materials of higher economic value.To address the issue, two valorisationroutes were applied: 1) alkali-activation initiating binding reactions in theslag by the addition of alkali hydroxides and silicates, 2) carbonation initiating hardening reaction in the slag by the formation of alkalicarbonates. Two stainless steel slags, continuous casting (CtCs) slag and Argonoxygen decarburisation (AOD) slag, were targeted for valorisation.Initiation of hardening reactions in theslag was found to occur only under a combined treatment of alkali (Na and K)hydroxides and high temperature (80 &#176;C) which was provided by steam curing. However,only a moderate strength in the mortar specimens was observed under suchconditions along with appearance of efflorescence with NaOH for molaritiesabove 5 M. The problem of low strength and efflorescence in the mortar sampleswas eliminated by the introduction of silicates in the system along with thealkali hydroxides. The compressive strength of the slag mortars was found toincrease with the increase in the amount of silicates in the activatingsolution and with the increase of the curing temperature. The reaction productfrom the activation was found to be C-S-H as confirmed by thermogravimetric,QXRD, FTIR and 29Si NMR analysis.The slag was also found to develop strengthunder acceleration carbonation conditions which was provided under two environments:i) in a carbonation chamber, maintained at atmospheric pressure, 22 &#176;C, 5 vol.%CO2 and 80% RH; and ii) in a carbonation reactor, where the CO2partial pressure (pCO2)and temperature could be further increased. It was found that in thecarbonation chamber the compressive strength of the samples and the CO2sequestration continued to increase up to 3 weeks whereas in the reactor theoptimum for strength and CO2 sequestration was found at 80 &#176;C, 8 barpressure in 2.5 h. The major reaction product was found to be calcite indifferent morphologies.Three types of masonry blocks were preparedform the slag with the two valorisation routes: alkali-activated solid bricks,perforated carbonated bricks and alkali-activated aerated bricks. Thecarbonated bricks were found to have the best resistance to freeze-thaw,whereas the aerated bricks were found to have superior thermal resistivity values.The LCA showed that the environmental impact of the bricks is lower (negativefor carbonated bricks) than the conventional clay fired bricks and the impactof the aerated bricks was found to be similar to the conventional aeratedblocks available in the market. A SWOTanalysis highlighted the advantage of using these bricks in the form of lowerenergy requirement in its production, reduction of stress on the use of prime materialsand ease of metal recovery from the residual slag.The results of the dissertation show that thebinding potential of the stainless steel slags can be exploited as valorisedapplications in the construction industry by novel thermo-alkali activation andcarbonation processes.


Book
Targeted research action Environmentally friendly construction technologies : state-of-the-art and market review 1997/1998.
Author:
Year: 1998 Publisher: Brussels European council for construction research, development and innovation,

The Ecology of building materials
Authors: ---
ISBN: 0750654503 Year: 2003 Publisher: London Architectural press,

Handbook of sustainable building : an environmental preference method for selection of materials for use in construction and refurbishment.
Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 1873936389 Year: 1996 Publisher: London James & James


Book
Material Revolution : Sustainable and Multi-Purpose Materials for Design and Architecture
Author:
ISBN: 9783034606639 9783034605755 303460663X 3034610777 Year: 2012 Publisher: Basel : Birkhäuser,

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Da inzwischen klar ist, dass uns viele Rohstoffe zukünftig nur noch begrenzt zur Verfügung stehen werden, wird seit einiger Zeit intensiv an Alternativen geforscht: Nachhaltigkeit ist das Gebot der Stunde und für Politik wie Industrie das Zauberwort für eine bessere Zukunft. Zudem ist das Bewusstsein für einen umweltverträglichen Umgang mit Werkstoffen und das Denken in Materialkreisläufen beim Konsumenten angekommen: Die Verwendung umweltverträglicher Materialien und Produktionsverfahren wird vom Kunden gewünscht, ja gar vorausgesetzt. Designern und Architekten kommt somit eine besondere Rolle und Verantwortung zu. Denn sie sind es, die bei ihren Projekten die Auswahl über die eingesetzten Werkstoffe treffen und damit entscheidenden Einfluss auf die Nachhaltigkeit unserer Produktwelt nehmen. Gleichzeitig haben wir es mit einer Flut neuer Materialien zu tun, was besondere Kenntnisse in Bezug auf ihre Eigenschaften, den möglichen Einsatz und ihre Verarbeitung erfordert. Materialrevolution schlägt hier die Brücke von Forschung und Industrie zu den Designern und Architekten, indem es einen systematischen Überblick über die derzeit verfügbaren nachhaltigen Materialien bietet und alle relevanten Information liefert, um die Eignung und das Potential eines neuen Materials für das eigene Projekt zu beurteilen. Dabei werden sowohl natürliche und biologisch abbaubare Materialien beleuchtet, als auch Werkstoffe mit multifunktionalen Eigenschaften und Potenzialen zur Verringerung des Energieeinsatzes vorgestellt. Since it is now clear that in the future many raw materials will only be available to us in limited quantities, scientists have for some time been conducting intensive research into possible alternatives. Sustainability is the order of the day and the magic word for a better future in politics and industry. Moreover, environmental consciousness and a penchant for thinking in terms of material cycles have caught on with consumers: the use of environmentally compatible materials and production methods is desired, even taken for granted by the client. Designers and architects thus have a special role and responsibility. For they are the ones who decide what materials will be used on their projects and thus wield enormous influence on the sustainability of our product world. At the same time, we are dealing with a flood of new materials, which calls for specialized knowledge of their properties, their possible use, and their handling. Material Revolution bridges the gap between research and industry on the one hand and designers and architects on the other by offering a systematic overview of the currently available sustainable materials and providing the reader with all the information he or she needs to assess a new material's suitability and potential for a given project. Along the way, it examines natural and biodegradable materials, while also presenting materials with multifunctional properties and the potential for diminishing energy requirements.


Book
Fibre-Fixed : composites in design
Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789058566119 9058566110 Year: 2018 Publisher: Oostkamp Gent Stichting Kunstboek bvba Design Museum Gent

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'Fibre-Fixed: Composites in Design' is a book about what can be achieved when tried and tested fibres are combined with other materials - often (bio) plastics - to create fibre reinforced composite materials. These fibres can be manifold: carbon, glass, a synthetic fibre or natural fibres such as flax, hemp, jute, ramie, silk... The strength and stiffness of these fibres, combined with the lightness of plastics, inspires designers to create lightweight, energy-efficient products. At the same time, the composite materials allow a great freedom of shape and design. Designing and using composite materials can be an answer to the social and ecological challenges today's society is facing. This book, edited by Lut Pil and Ignaas Verpoest, focuses on the results achieved in the past five years and looks ahead to some of the breakthroughs that are expected in the years to come. The projects presented in the book are diverse and come from different sectors such as mobility, sports, medical applications, energy supply, infrastructure, architecture and products for daily use. Exhibition: Design Museum Gent, Belgium (26.10.2018-21.04.2019).

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