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The nature-nurture debate : the essential readings
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ISBN: 0631217398 Year: 1999 Publisher: Oxford Blackwell


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Le financement climatique en 2013-2014 et l'objectif des 100 milliards de dollars : Rapport de l'OCDE établi en collaboration avec Climate Policy Initiative
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ISBN: 9264249966 Year: 2015 Publisher: Paris : OECD Publishing,

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Les pays développés se sont engagés à mobiliser ensemble 100 milliards USD par an d’ici à 2020 afin de financer les efforts de lutte contre le changement climatique dans les pays en développement. Cinq ans après l’annonce de cet engagement, qui a été faite à Copenhague en 2009 lors de la COP15, et six ans avant la date butoir de 2020, ce rapport présente un état des lieux du financement climatique mobilisé à cette fin par les pays développés en 2013 et 2014. Des avancées non négligeables ont été réalisées vers cet objectif. Selon les estimations préliminaires que présente ce rapport, le financement climatique a atteint 62 milliards USD en 2014 et 52 milliards USD en 2013, ce qui équivaut à une moyenne de 57 milliards USD par an pour ces deux années. Le rapport s‘attache à faire preuve de transparence et de rigueur dans l’analyse des données disponibles et le choix des hypothèses et des méthodes sous-jacente, malgré les limites que peut imposer un exercice de notification globale. Les approches méthodologiques et les activités de collecte de données nécessaires pour étayer l’élaboration d’estimations de cette nature vont en s’améliorant. Comme le souligne le rapport, il reste néanmoins des efforts importants à faire pour parvenir à établir des estimations plus complètes et plus justes à l’avenir. L’OCDE et CPI sont prêts à appuyer cet effort.


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La financiación para el clima en 2013-14 y el objetivo de los 100.000 millones de dólares : Informe de la OCDE en colaboración con la Iniciativa de Política Climática
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ISBN: 9264249974 Year: 2015 Publisher: Paris : OECD Publishing,

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Los países desarrollados tienen el compromiso de movilizar, para el año 2020, la cantidad anual de 100.000 millones de dólares para la financiación de la lucha contra el cambio climático en los países en desarrollo. Transcurridos cinco años desde que se formulase ese compromiso en la COP15 de Copenhague de 2009, y cuando faltan seis para el año 2020, este documento da cuenta de los avances logrados y del nivel de financiación para el clima conseguido por los países desarrollados en el bienio 2013-14. Sin duda se han logrado importantes avances de cara a este objetivo. De acuerdo con las estimaciones preliminares de este informe, la financiación relacionada con el cambio climático alcanzó la cifra de 62.000 millones de dólares en 2014, frente a 52.000 millones en 2013, con lo que el promedio anual fue de 57.000 millones de dólares en el bienio de referencia. Este informe pretende ser transparente y riguroso en la evaluación de los datos disponibles, así como en la elección de los supuestos de que partir y en las metodologías utilizadas, dentro siempre de las limitaciones que supone todo informe sobre datos agregados. Los enfoques metodológicos y la recopilación de datos que avalan las presentes estimaciones evolucionan sin cesar. Pese a ello, y como se apunta en el propio informe, todavía queda bastante por hacer para poder contar en el futuro con unas estimaciones más exhaustivas y precisas. La OCDE y la Iniciativa de Política Climática (CPI) están dispuestas a apoyar en la realización de esos esfuerzos.


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Gene environment interactions : nature and nurture in the twenty-first century
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ISBN: 0128197978 0128196130 9780128197974 9780128196137 Year: 2020 Publisher: London, England : Academic Press,


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Born together--reared apart : the landmark Minnesota twin study
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ISBN: 9780674055469 0674065158 9780674065154 0674055462 0674070143 9780674070141 Year: 2012 Publisher: Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press,

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The identical "Jim twins" were raised in separate families and met for the first time at age thirty-nine, only to discover that they both suffered tension headaches, bit their fingernails, smoked Salems, enjoyed woodworking, and vacationed on the same Florida beach. This example of the potential power of genetics captured widespread media attention in 1979 and inspired the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. This landmark investigation into the nature-nurture debate shook the scientific community by demonstrating, across a number of traits, that twins reared separately are as alike as those raised together. As a postdoctoral fellow and then as assistant director of the Minnesota Study, Nancy L. Segal provides an eagerly anticipated overview of its scientific contributions and their effect on public consciousness. The study's evidence of genetic influence on individual differences in traits such as personality (50%) and intelligence (70%) overturned conventional ideas about parenting and teaching. Treating children differently and nurturing their inherent talents suddenly seemed to be a fairer approach than treating them all the same. Findings of genetic influence on physiological characteristics such as cardiac and immunologic function have led to more targeted approaches to disease prevention and treatment. And indications of a stronger genetic influence on male than female homosexuality have furthered debate regarding sexual orientation.


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Test No. 473: In Vitro Mammalian Chromosomal Aberration Test
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ISBN: 9789264264649 Year: 2014 Publisher: Paris : OECD Publishing,

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The purpose of the in vitro chromosome aberration test is to identify agents that cause structural chromosome aberrations in cultured mammalian somatic cells. Structural aberrations may be of two types: chromosome or chromatid. The in vitro chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are exposed to the test substance (liquid or solid) both with and without metabolic activation during about 1.5 normal cell cycle lengths. At least three analysable concentrations of the test substance should be used. At each concentration duplicate cultures should normally be used. At predetermined intervals after exposure of cell cultures to the test substance, the cells are treated with a metaphase-arresting substance, harvested, stained. Metaphase cells are analysed microscopically for the presence of chromosome aberrations.


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The triumph of evolution : American scientists and the Heredity-Environment Controversy 1900-1941
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ISBN: 0812277449 Year: 1978 Publisher: Philadelphia (Pa.): University of Pennsylvania Press


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Violence : 'mercurial gestalt'
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ISBN: 9401200653 1435651774 9781435651777 9789401200653 9042024038 9789042024038 Year: 2008 Publisher: Amsterdam [Netherlands] ; New York : Rodopi,

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“One afternoon, a patient who had been in three times weekly ... psychotherapy ... left my office after her session, drove down to the train tracks half a mile from my office, and sat down facing an oncoming train.” This tragic event opens the essay by psychoanalyst Susanne Chassay who explores the relationship between private and political terrorism. Her viewpoint complements analyses of violence – that ‘mercurial gestalt’ – by other contributors to this collection derived from a 2003 Cultures of Violence conference held at St. Catherine’s College, Oxford, organized by the Inter-disciplinary Net. From fields as diverse as philosophy, sociology, psychology, history, political science, literary criticism, and forensics, authors consider, for instance, hostility to European minorities; military training and torture; the ‘endemic violence’ aesthetically recorded by Haitian novelists; child abuse in film; female genital mutilation in fiction; or the massacre of Koreans during the 1923 Japanese earthquake. Violence in contact zones in Northern Ireland or in the memory of South African museum directors trying to comply with Truth and Reconciliation Commission mandates is also an object of scrutiny here. Finally, that vexed, primordial issue of violence – nature or nurture? – is probed.


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The Triumph of Evolution : American Scientists and the Heredity-Environment Controversy, 1900-1941
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ISBN: 1512815357 Year: 1978 Publisher: Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press,

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Hamilton Cravens challenges widespread belief to argue that the impact of evolutionary ideas on American culture and science has been greater since the collapse of Social Darwinism. he portrays a new generation of American scientists whose pioneering work led to the bitterly debated heredity-environment controversy in the 1920s and then, in the '30s, to a "synthetic" theory of the way heredity and environment together have shaped human nature and culture. The resolution of this issue seemed to hold an exhilarating promise. If scientists could explain--and even predict--human behavior, they might help restore social control and stability in an age of domestic ferment and international turmoil. The Triumph of Evolution is the first scholarly history of one of the most significant scientific controversies of the twentieth century.

Exercises in rethinking innateness : a handbook for connectionist simulations
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ISBN: 0262661055 0262287080 0585382069 9780262287081 Year: 1997 Publisher: Cambridge, Massachusetts : MIT Press,

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