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Chapter 2 studies the learning styles of first-year medical students. Chapter 3 focuses on the general effectiveness of the counseling program, regardless of version. Chapter 4 focuses on the dynamic interaction between the key variables in the social cognitive model of selfregulated learning. Chapter 5 tackles the central question about the potential of the 'learning style awareness' hypothesis within the context of university education. The results suggest that learning style awareness does not have a surplus effect on the students' learning process. Since the end of the seventies, the learning style concept has gained growing popularity. It is however also strongly criticised. Three main problems emerge. A first problem is the conceptual confusion in the learning style research field. The second problem is that there is little guidance as to the way learning styles should be applied in educational practice: the traditional 'matching-hypothesis' poses several difficulties. A final problem is the questionable psychometric quality of many learning style instruments. In this dissertation, we tackle the first and the second problem in view of educational applications of the learning style concept in a university setting. Chapter 1 focuses on the first problem, the conceptual confusion in the learning style research field. Learning style and cognitive style are the concepts of interest. We present citation analysis as a technique to develop an alternative organization of this literature. Chapters 2 to 5 report on four studies that build on an experiment set up within university education and focused on the educational application of learning styles. We investigate the potential of the 'learning style awareness' hypothesis as an alternative for the 'matching hypothesis'. The experiment was based on pretest-posttest design and a specific intervention. An elective academic counseling program with a focus on self-regulated learning was organized for the first-year medical students at Ghent University. Two versions of this program were developed. The control group received a standard self-regulated learning program, without explicit information about their learning style. The experimental group participated in a self-regulated learning program in which learning style awareness was explicitly promoted. The third, reference group did not participate in the program.